October 26, 2017

A brief introduction to the big go kart, and machining some PolyChain sprockets

Brief Introduction:
Go read Bayley's introduction.  TL:DR:  Racing kart frame with hybrid car parts based powertrain and custom motor control.  We've done a lot of motor modeling, characterization, and control over the last year, and the go kart is getting quite performant.  But we're not quite squeezing all the possible performance out of the KIA HSGs yet.  And the kart's going to get a second motor.

Right now the go kart uses Gates Micro-V belts, because the HSG's come with those pulleys pre-attached.  However, we're driving the motors a fair bit harder than the car they came from did.  The v-belts, even with a huge amount of tension, slip at ~45 N-m of torque, and we've been able to hit nearly 60 N-m at 180 phase amps.  So we're switching the kart over to Gates PolyChain GT Carbon belts, which are basically the best synchronous belts you can get.  The inch wide Micro-V belt is getting replaced with a 12mm wide, 8mm pitch PolyChain belt, which should be good for substantially more torque.

You can download CAD models of the sprockets from Gates, but, as they warn you on the website, the tooth geometry of the sprockets is not actually accurate, since the tooth profile is proprietary.  My first plan was to try to figure out the tooth profiles from the patents (1, 2), but it turns out if you just ask nicely, Gates will send you the tooth profile drawings  drawings for the sprockets you want.

We went for a reduction of 4:1, with a 20 tooth motor sprocket and an 80 tooth sprocket on the axle.  The big sprockets were too big to fit on the MITERS CNC mill, so I did them on my lab's Haas SMM.  For fun I GoPro'd the entire machining process for one of them:

Getting a good finish on the teeth required many very shallow passes - the minimum curvature radius in the grooves is very close to matching the 3mm end mill I was using, so I had to go really slowly to avoid chatter at the high-engagement areas.

The motor-side sprocket was done on the MITERS CNC.  I still need to broach the keyway in it, and turn a clamping hub for the big sprocket.

Here's one of them partially installed on the go kart.  Still needs a hub to clamp the axle.

So low profile!

Back to the subject of squeezing all the performance out of the KIA HSG, next kart post will be about a stall test stand we through together for motor characterization.


  1. Would you be able to post that belt profile you received from gates??

  2. I am interested in your works now i under look up the vendor mfr sprocket at the motor and at the axle parts my application for moped electric scooter compare with motorcycle 125 cc type plase susgest me/thanks

  3. Hi, I have no answer from Gates, could give the contact you got to get the profile?
    Thank you.

  4. I just finished my HSG go-cart... look me up on utube, eric.ensley1 This motor is the BOMB, the lebowski controller i'm using is THE BOMB!!! awesome power!!!